Income Disparity under Welfare and Poverty Dilemma in Emerging Countries


Economists have studied income distribution and its divisions to everyone involved in the process for a long time. The principal force involved in the determination of income distribution is a notable context of its own. However, distribution equally affects the evolution of an economy over time. This has led to diverse distribution theories, leading to various scenarios concerning the visualization of economies alongside approaches and analytical tools implemented. However, when a specific group’s income and welfare are interlinked in some way, there is no surprise that the resulting value judgment will affect the terminologies and economical analytical methods used in that context. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the diverse income distribution theories so that the reader can better understand their competencies and flaws alongside the various settings they might be employed.


Nevertheless, there is no doubting the complexities surrounding income disparity. Fortunately, inequality issues are not typically as awful as the general society believes. In reality, due to mobility opportunities, the extent of disparities is not as enormous as most people think. In reality, people can leave positions of low income because opportunities exist for that purpose. People have developed wealth as their lives progressed within middle-class income positions in emerging countries. Therefore, the extent of stagnation in that class is, in fact, almost insignificant. However, policies supposed to help combat income disparities cause more harm (than good) to the general populace. This book provides self-contained essays, as every chapter is independent. Nevertheless, reading one against the other can provide immense clarity as contrasts and comparisons become apparent once they are cross-referenced.

The introduction chapter of this book offers an expert summary and serves as a guide to all who intend to read it. It provides an overview of some features that can appear in diverse forms across the different distribution theories. They are highly beneficial because of their inferences on social and institutional arrangements, assumed equilibrium, treatment period, and the assessed residual income within this book.


Perhaps in the past few years, one of the most misunderstood concepts is income disparity.  Income inequality issues are now a concern for the public. However, it was heightened by the recession in 2008-09, resulting in consequences for the corporate sector, the Occupy Wall Street movement, and a myriad of other events. A given sign about its growing popularity is a book written by Thomas Piketty, the French Economist. This book sheds insights on capital in the 21st Century and therefore expands on income disparities. The book was soon named a bestseller globally and further analyzed how income disparity is rising with higher income distribution margins witnessed among the highest earners. These summaries, however, require assumptions and data for measuring inequality. Indeed, hundreds of scientists are still using incomplete and problematic information alongside study methods that create many issues, such as the seemingly increasing “income gap” and stagnating living standards. Still, these reports are continuously aired about the increasing income disparities and misery of average incomes. It is not astonishing that many researchers have become convinced of these misrepresented issues.

The lack of enormous consciousness and precision when it has to do with issues relating to disparities, those in charge of making policies would keep on chasing after standard solutions that will significantly bring down the economic potency that the masses have enjoyed. This would, in turn, reduce the potential of the masses to increase their income generation. Therefore, it is vital must be adequately enlightened about what real disparity and growing income are all about. Besides, we have to know whether the disparity is certainly harmful or an enormous economic drive, the stress involved in quantifying disparity, and how delicate disparity measures are, concerning the cardinal definitions. It is also vital to know whether there is a fast-growing vacuum and a condition of income mobility. Income mobility is the government’s capacity to out-grow a particular income group rather than getting fixed to a particular income group for many years. The chapters in Thomas Piketty’s book talk about these sensitive and challenging matters and cover public discourse areas. The combination gives a full breakdown of income disparity.  

Brief Fundamental Narration

Findings regarding personal income distribution emanate from Pareto (1895, 1896, 1897). It has to do with the spread of income among economic units, like a person, household, and family. The findings concerned the overall sum of income of a particular unit irrespective of production property constraints. However, exceptions exist for situations where distribution by income sources such as self-employment earnings, income from investments, interests, payment transfers, earnings, and salaries are the underlying factors.  Therefore, it regards personal income distribution and offers insights on the size and shape of income distribution within microeconomic units. This, in turn, will be beneficial to researchers and graduate students working across all economic fields, especially labor economics, macroeconomics, and economic policies.

This book promises to offer valuables, which can, in turn, be used for developing a Handbook for the field of income distribution. Therefore, it serves as a definitive source or frame of reference. Graduate students and professional researchers will also find these guides an excellent contribution to supplemental teaching.

Every handbook provides independent assessments of the present economics branches. It represents them as chapters prepared by reputable experts in many areas within this economics branch. These assessments provide a comprehensive overview that encompasses newer developments, especially from recent journal publications and discussion papers alongside received survey assessment outcomes. Although original insights are included, the main objective is to offer a detailed overview of surveys, thereby making them more accessible. Therefore, the Handbooks will offer a useful reference for professional studies and supplementary readings, especially for advanced graduate studies in economics.

Critical Attributes

What policies, concepts, evidence, and insights have transformed income distribution studies in the 21st Century?

  1. Publications provide insights and definitions on principal areas for research on income distribution
  2. Many contributions focus on the development of new questions and future research avenues.
  3. Authority essays provide insights on various ways that income disparities and income mobility have gained higher significance politically.
  4. How re-establish welfare-poverty balance by income distribution in emerging countries?

Possible Content Titles

  • Income distribution theories
  • Income disparity measurement
  • Impact of income poverty on the economies of emerging nations
  • Inequality, constraints, and economic accomplishments
  • The nature of wealth distribution
  • Income distribution and development
  • Impacts of income distribution and economic development
  • Income mobility in emerging economies
  • History of Income distribution and Economic Concepts
  • Social Protection and Changing Resource Distribution
  • Inequality, redistribution, and democracy
  • Effect of Economic Catastrophe on Income distribution
  • Socio-Economic Crises and poverty
  • Reducing Poverty by Post-Welfare State
  • Gender Disparities and Globalization
  • Inequality and International Migration
  • Impact of Earnings Distribution on Distributed Income
  • Labor Market Policy Interventions and Wage Earnings
  • Health and Income disparities
  • Gender and Wealth Gap
  • The Gender Income Gap
  • Gender Labor Divisions, non-market work, and gender disparities
  • Disparities in Financial Markets
  • Competition within Markets.
  • Readerships and Markets



Assistant Professor in the Department of Labour Economics & Industrial Relations,

Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University, Turkey



Associate Professor in the Department of Economics, Yaşar University, Turkey

Research Associate at Five College Women’s Studies Research Center, University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA

Visiting Researcher at Department of Sociology, Lund University, Sweden.